<<O>>  Difference Topic WindowsInstallCookbook (r1.5 - 15 Aug 2004 - PeterThoeny)

Windows Install Cookbook

Introduction

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This cookbook is intended to get you up and running with TWiki on Windows quickly, with as few problems as possible. The 'cookbook' approach is simply to restrict the many choices that someone installing TWiki must make, so that a reasonably well-defined procedure can be followed - new users can simply follow the steps, while experts can use this as more of a guideline. Please read TWiki:Codev.WindowsModPerlInstallCookbook in case you use mod_perl.
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This cookbook is intended to get you up and running with TWiki on Windows quickly, with as few problems as possible. The 'cookbook' approach is simply to restrict the many choices that someone installing TWiki must make, so that a reasonably well-defined procedure can be followed - new users can simply follow the steps, while experts can use this as more of a guideline.

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There is a huge volume of existing material on TWiki about installing on Windows, and I'm indebted to the many contributors for this - the aim of this cookbook is to synthesise the many tips into a recipe that works.

  • NOTE: This cookbook is probably incomplete (e.g. it doesn't cover authentication setup), but it has now been successfully tried out by a few people - it is quite accurate and should get you started if you follow the instructions. Please consider it beta quality, and provide feedback in TWiki:Codev.WindowsInstallCookbookComments.
  • NOTE: You will get the best results from following this cookbook exactly, using the same directories etc - however, if you really do need to vary things, it should be fairly obvious what to do.
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  • NOTE: This cookbook is not 100% complete (e.g. it doesn't cover authentication setup described by existing documentation), but it has been used successfully for over a year now - it is quite accurate and should get you started if you follow the instructions. Please provide feedback in TWiki:Codev.WindowsInstallCookbookComments.
  • NOTE: You will get the best results from following this cookbook exactly, using the same directories, etc - however, if you really do need to vary things, it should be fairly obvious what to do.

-- RichardDonkin? - 24 Feb 2002

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Summary

NEW - See WindowsInstallSummary for a concise summary of the whole cookbook.


Recent updates

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  • 28 Jun 2004 - updated to reflect experiences installing beta20040507 on Windows NT
  • 2 Jun 2003 - updated to include setting HOME since this is not always picked up by Cygwin
  • 30 Apr 2003 - New issue with Perl 5.8 found, added warning not to use Perl 5.8
  • 02 Mar 2003 - updated to restrict register script edits to Dec 2001 release

  • 30 Nov 2002 - added binutils to list of Cygwin packages, and added warning not to use Apache 2.0
  • 20 Nov 2002 - update to avoid TWiki:Support.InstallDigestSHA1Fails when installing Digest::SHA1 on Windows 2000
  • 12 Nov 2002 - setting SMTPMAILHOST for user registration and notification
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  • 03 Sep 2002 - linked to TWiki:Codev.WindowsModPerlInstallCookbook
  • 20 Jul 2002 - added flags to grep commands in TWiki.cfg
  • 27 Jun 2002 - more updates to list of required Cygwin packages
  • 20 Jun 2002 - added creation of c:/twiki directory
  • 17 Jun 2002 - updates to list of required Cygwin packages
  • 15 Jun 2002 - various notes on Cygwin installation and troubleshooting: use of 'Unix' as default text file type (i.e. for mounting c:/cygwin directories) is essential for binary attachment uploads to work properly
  • 27 Apr 2002 - update to settings for egrep and fgrep on some Cygwin versions (fix from TWiki:Main.DavidLeBlanc)
  • 21 Apr 2002 - updates on download sizes and free disk space requirements, improved post-installation testing, and brief coverage of TWiki:Codev.WindowsInstallModNTLM to avoid TWiki:Codev.ForgettingPasswords
  • 18 Apr 2002 - updates on Apache installation, setting TZ variable, and creation of c:\temp, based on comments by TWiki:Main.MaryDeMarco
  • 3 Apr 2002 - added pcre to list of Cygwin packages (required by grep), fixed bug in Apache config (Apache doesn't allow '#' comments on same line as config)
  • 19 Mar 2002 - comment about Windows 98
  • 18 Mar 2002 - fix for register script committed to TWiki:Codev.TWikiAlphaRelease - most users can ignore this for now, but the edits in step 5 will eventually go away
  • 14 Mar 2002 - minor fix to section on Apache environment
  • 13 Mar 2002 - added a link to another Windows text editor
  • 4 Mar 2002 - changed status to beta, notes about using spaces in file names, pointer on TWiki authentication setup, overview of Cygwin permissions and security issues
  • 3 Mar 2002 - minor update to include uname -a command to check Cygwin DLL version, and delete Apache config's PassEnv line
  • 27 Feb 2002 - various improvements to Cygwin and Perl Net::SMTP installation sections, based on comments in TWiki:Codev.WindowsInstallCookbookComments by TWiki:Main.MartinWittmann. Also linked to a Windows editor that understands Unix/Cygwin file formats.
  • 25 Feb 2002 - clarified changes required to register, fixed minor typo in Cygwin binary mode section, after beta testing by TWiki:Main.JerryWard (thanks!)
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Scope

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Component Name, version Comment
Operating System Windows 2000 Should also work for Windows NT
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Web Server Apache 1.3.26 Windows-specific security holes fixed in this build
(check latest version at http://httpd.apache.org, but don't use Apache 2.0 yet)
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Web Server Apache 1.3.27 Windows-specific security holes fixed in this build
(check latest version at http://httpd.apache.org, but don't use Apache 2.0 yet)

Unix tools Cygwin 1.3.9 Simplest way to get a whole set of required tools
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Perl Cygwin perl-5.6.1-2 Comes with Cygwin
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Perl Cygwin perl-5.6.1-2 Comes with Cygwin, don't use Perl 5.8.0 yet

RCS Cygwin rcs-5.7-2 Comes with Cygwin, includes a file corruption bugfix

Why this choice of packages? Because I've tried them, and they work well, without requiring a complicated setup... In particular, Apache is the commonest choice for TWiki on Unix/Linux, Cygwin Perl is very close to Unix Perl, and the Cygwin RCS is regularly updated, with a recent TWiki-relevant bug fix in Feb 2002. Cygwin also lets you install the Unix tools, Perl and RCS in a single step, saving quite a lot of time.

More recent minor versions should be OK, but they can introduce bugs.

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NEW Major version upgrades, such as Apache 2.0 and Perl 5.8, are very likely to cause problems - for example, Apache 2.0 is unable to authenticate (see TWiki:Support.FailedAuthenticationWithApache2OnWinNT) users created by the current TWiki user registration script (due to a feature being removed in 2.0), and Perl 5.8 may introduce issues due to its Unicode features. Even though the Apache group says that Apache 2.0 is the best version, that's not true for TWiki.
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NEW Major version upgrades, such as Apache 2.0 and Perl 5.8, are very likely to cause problems - for example, Apache 2.0 is unable to authenticate users created by the current TWiki user registration script (due to a feature being removed in 2.0, see TWiki:Support.FailedAuthenticationWithApache2OnWinNT). Similarly, Perl 5.8 may introduce issues due to its Unicode features and has caused problems due to a bug in CGI.pm. Even though the Apache group says that Apache 2.0 is the best version, that's not true for TWiki at present. For more information, see TWiki:Codev.IssuesWithApache2dot0 and TWiki:Codev.IssuesWithPerl5dot8.

Alternatives

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The following Windows operating systems have been tested following the instructions given here:

There are doubtless other combinations of components that may work - in particular:

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  • TWiki:Codev.ActiveState Perl involves only minor changes to TWiki.cfg, and is probably a simpler choice if you need an easy way to install mod_perl (see TWiki:Codev.ModPerl). TWiki:Codev.ActiveState Perl can be substituted without too much hassle, and in fact the same TWiki.cfg can be used for both TWiki:Codev.ActiveState and Cygwin Perl.
  • Using a different web server is certainly possible, but the setup required for each webserver varies greatly (see TWiki:Codev.TWikiOnWindows for pages about specific web servers). You may find it easiest to get a working system with Apache and then switch over to another web server.
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Covering the whole range of additional possibilities, particularly web servers, would make this cookbook too complex, and is best handled as a separate activity.

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For improved performance on Windows through using mod_perl, you may want to try TWiki:Codev.WindowsModPerlInstallCookbook.

Checking versions

If you already have some of these add-ons installed, here's how to check the versions - this assumes you have TWiki:Codev.CygWin already installed:

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$ rcs -V
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If you have an older version of any component, do yourself a favour and upgrade it as part of the install process.

Pre-requisites and upgrades

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You will need to have local administrator rights and to be comfortable with Windows administration.

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You will need to have local administrator rights and be comfortable with Windows administration.

This cookbook is intended for a clean install, i.e. none of these components are already installed. However, since Cygwin and Apache's installation process is fairly upgrade-friendly, upgrades should work as well - take backups of all your data and config files first, though!

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Text editing

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Editing Cygwin files is best done with an editor that can handle Unix file format (see the Cygwin binary mode section below) - the installation process includes nano, a non-GUI editor, but if you prefer to use a GUI editor, you should first install PFE, a freeware editor that supports Unix format files. PFE is available on download.com and Simtel.

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Editing Cygwin files should be done with an editor that can handle Unix file format (see the Cygwin binary mode section below). The installation process suggests:
  • nano, a very simple text editor, installed optionally during Cygwin installation. Always launch nano with the -w command-line option to turn off wrapping of long lines.
  • vi, a more sophisticated editor that should be familiar to most UNIX users
These both non-GUI editors, but if you prefer to use a GUI editor you should install PFE, a freeware editor that supports Unix format files. PFE is available on download.com and Simtel.

Another good TWiki:Codev.OpenSource editor is SciTE (aka WSciTE), available at http://www.scintilla.org/SciTE.html.

The Unix/Windows Environment

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It's a little known fact that you can use pathnames such as c:/apache almost everywhere in Windows - try it in a File Open dialogue box. The main exception is the Win2000 cmd.exe command line shell - here, you must use double quotes around forward slashes, e.g. dir "c:/apache" will work fine.
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It's a little known fact that you can use pathnames such as c:/apache almost everywhere in Windows - try it in a File Open dialogue box. The main exception is the Windows "DOS" command line shell - here, you must use double quotes around forward slashes, e.g. dir "c:/apache" will work fine.

The reason this matters is that '\' is a special character to Perl and other tools, so it's much easier to use '/' everywhere.

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The Perl environment

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Once Perl has been launched by Apache, it is in Cygwin mode, and so is everything it launches, including ls, egrep, and RCS tools that it (typically) launches with the bash shell.
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Once Perl has been launched by Apache, it is in Cygwin mode, and so is everything it launches, including ls, egrep, and the RCS tools that it (typically) launches with the bash shell.

If you need to use spaces in file names (not recommended), you may be able to put double quotes around the file name in the TWiki.cfg file - however, it's not clear whether all the TWiki code would work with this.

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Installing Components

Enough background, let's get on with the installation.

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Head to http://twiki.org, click the download link, and fill in the form to request a URL for download. You'll get an automated email, which should arrive by the time you need it.

Apache

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Steps 1 and 2 can be shortcut by opening the self-installing executable on the Apache website that installs Apache 1.3.x. The painful details below are mainly helpful when detecting where things are going wrong.....

1. Download Apache

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    • Note that this is a Microsoft Installer format file (.MSI) - this is supported by Windows 2000.
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    • Note that this is a Microsoft Installer format file (.MSI)

  • NOTE: If you are using Windows NT, download the .MSI installer (instmsi.exe) from the Apache Win32 download page - this enables you to install .MSI files. You may need to update the .MSI Installer if you have an old version under NT.
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  • NOTE: The Apache package itself requires a download of around 2 MB, and up to 10 MB of free disk space once installed.
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  • NOTE: The Apache package itself requires a download of around 2 MB, and up to 10 MB of free disk space once installed

2. Install Apache

  • Double-click the .MSI file to run the installer
  • Specify c:\ as the installation directory - this actually installs Apache into c:\apache (if you specify c:\apache, it installs into c:\apache\Apache). Putting Apache into c:\Program Files is not recommended for easy editing of Apache config files from Cygwin.
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  • You can choose to run Apache as a Win2000 service or as a normal program - see the Apache docs for details.
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  • On Windows NT/2000 you can choose to run Apache as a service or as a normal program - see the Apache docs for details.

3. Test Apache

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  • If necessary, start apache, either as a Win2000 service (using Admin Tools | Computer Management, or by typing apache -k start -n apache) or standalone (by typing apache -k start)
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  • If necessary, start apache, by selecting 'Start' from the 'Start->Programs->Apache...->Control Apache Server' menu.

Congratulations, you now have a working web server!

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4. Install Cygwin

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Head to http://cygwin.com, and click the Install Cygwin Now link. Save the setup.exe in a directory, e.g. c:\download\cygwin-dist.
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Head to http://cygwin.com, and click the cygwin-icon.gif Install or update now! link. Save the setup.exe in a directory, e.g. c:\download\cygwin-dist.

Now run the Cygwin setup.exe file - this will also install Perl and RCS in one fell swoop.

  • Choose Internet install
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  • In the package list screen, hit the View button until you get an alphabetical list that says Full to the right of the button.
  • Leave the radio button on Curr (Current)
    • The Current column shows what's installed on your system (if anything)
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  • For each package, make sure the New column in the installer has a version number under it. If it says 'Skip' or 'Keep' (meaning it's already installed), single-click that word until a version number is shown. Make sure you select the following packages:
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  • For each package, make sure the New column in the installer has a version number under it. If it says 'Skip' or 'Keep' (meaning it's already installed), single-click that word until a version number is shown. Make sure you select the following packages - in recent Cygwin setups you will have to select Perl 5.6.1 explicitly:

    • bash
    • binutils
    • diffutils
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    • grep
    • gzip
    • make
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    • nano
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    • nano (or vim if you prefer the vi editor)

    • ncftp
    • pcre
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    • perl (5.6.1-2 or higher)
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    • perl (5.6.1-2 or higher, but not 5.8.0)

    • rcs (5.7-2 or higher)
    • tar
    • textutils
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    • NOTE: The mandatory packages require a download of about 12 MB - about half of this is Perl, which would be necessary even without Cygwin, and most of the rest is gcc, which is required for simple installation of Perl modules that use the C language. Something like 20 to 30 MB of free disk space should be enough for Cygwin, but I didn't test this (try a du -k / after a new install and let me know the last figure).
    • NOTE: The installer keeps a local copy of downloaded files, so it's easy to re-install without re-downloading.
  • Let the installer create the shortcuts suggested
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  • You can always come back and re-run the installer again later if you missed anything.

Environment setup:

  • Set the HOME environment variable to c:\cygwin\home\YOURUSER, where YOURUSER is your userid, e.g. jsmith or administrator.
    • Windows NT, XP and 2000: Go into Control Panel, double-click the System icon, and select Advanced, then click Environment Variables. Under User Variables, click New.... Now type HOME (must be upper case) as the variable name, and c:\cygwin\home\YOURUSER as the value, and hit OK.
    • Windows 98 and ME - add to AUTOEXEC.BAT and reboot
  • You can also set TEMP to c:\temp at this point, if you prefer this to editing the Cygwin ~/.profile file. (HOME can't be set in the ~/.profile file.)
  • Create the c:\cygwin\home\YOURUSER directory

5. Test Cygwin

  • Launch the desktop icon - this runs the bash shell, which has command line editing features
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7. Download TWiki

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Download the latest TWiki release from the URL that PeterThoeny sent you, and save it in the c:/twiki directory.
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Download the latest TWiki release from http://twiki.org/ and save it in the c:/twiki directory.

8. Install TWiki

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1. Configure Apache (part 1)

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Using a suitable text editor (e.g. Cygwin's 'nano', or the Windows PFE editor, unless you already know 'vi'), edit c:/apache/conf/httpd.conf as follows - this tells Apache where TWiki lives, and removes the need to tinker with the Windows 2000 environment settings.
  • If you are using nano, always launch it with nano -w filename - this turns off wrapping of long lines.
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Using a suitable text editor (see #TextEditing, above) edit c:/apache/conf/httpd.conf as follows - this tells Apache where TWiki lives, and removes the need to tinker with the Windows environment settings.

  • Note the trailing '/' characters in various places - they are important!

  • Create the c:\temp directory, by typing mkdir c:\temp in a DOS command line window
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Add an AddHandler line to the <IfModule mod_mime.c> section of httpd.conf - this removes the need to rename all the TWiki CGI scripts later in the installation.

  • Note the trailing '.' on the AddHandler line.
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# # Document types #
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<IfModule mod_mime.c>
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# TWiki setup - avoid renaming scripts
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AddHandler cgi-script . </IfModule>
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AddHandler? cgi-script . ...

Configuring TWiki

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$fgrepCmd = "c:\\cygwin\\bin\\grep";
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Editing the CGI scripts

4. Editing the Shebang lines

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Now to edit the curiously named 'shebang lines' at the top of the TWiki CGI scripts...
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Now to edit the curiously named 'shebang lines' at the top of the TWiki CGI scripts. This is required so the Apache server knows what interpreter (perl) to use with the scripts.

  • You must use the Cygwin shell to do this (unless you are a Perl expert) - don't use the Windows command shell, cmd.exe (aka DOS Prompt)
  • Then do the following, which quickly edits the 19 or so files, using Perl - the important lines are in bold.
  • Type the Perl line very carefully
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6. Installing required Perl modules

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Some additional Perl modules are needed for the register script to work properly. Fortunately, there is an automated tool that makes it easy to do this - it's called cpan, and goes to the Perl module archive site, http://www.cpan.org/, to download all required modules, and then build and install them. Here's what you need to do:
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Some additional Perl modules are needed, above and beyond the standard modules installed with Cygwin. Fortunately, there is an automated tool that makes it easy to do this - it's called cpan, and goes to the Perl module archive site, http://www.cpan.org/, to download all required modules, and then build and install them.

Note: if you are unable to get cpan working in your environment, don't panic; you can still install the modules manually. In this case, follow the instructions in CPAN: The Hard Way.


First of all, you need to get the cpan tool configured and working - this is only necessary once. From the Cygwin shell, type the following (putting the export command in ~/.profile is recommended to make this setting persistent). Without the TEMP variable, some modules may fail to install on Windows 2000 and higher.

$ export TEMP=/c/temp
$ cpan
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Lots of questions about configuration and preferences - just hit Enter until you get to the questions about mirror sites, but answer the questions about FTP proxies etc if you are behind a proxy-based firewall. The CPAN tool will fetch a series of files, some quite large, as part of this setup process, so be patient...
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NOTE: If you are behind a non-proxy-based firewall that requires the use of passive FTP, the initial downloads of files using Net::FTP may appear to hang - just wait 5 or more minutes, however, and the CPAN tool should eventually hit on ncftpget, which is part of Cygwin and does work OK. If this doesn't work and you are behind a typical NAT-based firewall, try doing the following at the Cygwin shell before running cpan - this forces Net::FTP to use passive FTP, letting it get through such firewalls:
$ export FTP_PASSIVE=1
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Eventually, you'll get to the CPAN tool's shell prompt, where you need to install a few modules - the tool will do all the work for you.
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Eventually, you'll get to the cpan installer's shell prompt, where you need to install a few modules - the tool will do all the work for you.

  • NOTE: You will need to have previously installed the Cygwin make and gcc packages, which are required by the CPAN installer (gcc is required for modules that include C language code) - you can install them now by launching Cygwin's setup.exe from c:/download/cygwin-dist (no need to exit the CPAN installer).



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CPAN: The Hard Way

If you find that cpan doesn't work for you, perhaps because you are behind an uncooperative corporate firewall, you may have to fall back on installing modules manually. In this case, you need to read the CPAN INSTALL page and visit the CPAN search site to search for each module you require. Usually installation simply involves downloading the module distribution into a temporary directory and unpacking it (a .tar.gz or .tgz file is unpacked using tar zxvf file). Then do the following:
$ perl Makefile.PL
$ make
$ make test
$ make install
The make test step should not be skipped - for example, one known problem is with the Digest::SHA1 module on Windows NT, which does not pass its tests and does not work. This causes problems with password encoding. In this event you can use another encoding scheme or switch to unencoded passwords. There may be other problems on the various Windows configurations, and you can save yourself a lot of time.

Re-locking RCS files

7. Re-locking files

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You can re-lock files using rcs -u and rcs -l, but it's a painfully manual process. Instead, just use Perl again to mass-edit all the RCS files, as follows:
  • NOTE: The 'NR <= 10' part of the Perl command ensures that it only operates on the first 10 lines, to avoid editing the body of RCS files for topics that happen to include the text 'nobody:' (like this one...)
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$ cd /twiki/data
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8. Email setup for notification and registration

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You need to set the SMTPMAILHOST in TWikiPreferences to an SMTP email host that is reachable and currently working. Otherwise you'll get a confusing message from TWiki when registering new users or running mailnotify (for WebNotify), along the lines of:
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You need to set the SMTPMAILHOST in TWikiPreferences to an SMTP email host that is reachable and currently working. Otherwise you may get a confusing message from TWiki (fixed in TWiki:Codev.TWikiRelease01Feb2003) when registering new users or running mailnotify (for WebNotify), along the lines of:

   Software Error: Can't call method "mail" on an undefined value at ../lib/TWiki/Net.pm line 187.
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Here are the main things to test:

  • testenv - use http://yourdomain.com/bin/testenv and check for warnings
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    • If you are having installation trouble, download the latest testenv from TWiki:Codev/TWikiAlphaRelease and install it in c:/twiki/bin. (From TWiki.org, just click CVSget:bin/testenv to get this script)

  • Page viewing (view script) - click around a few pages and make sure the links are OK
  • RCS diffs (rdiff script) - click on the Diffs link and on the '>' links at bottom of page
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  • Edit a page, and register as a new user - tests page creation, use of register script to create a new user entry in /twiki/data/.htpasswd (the Apache password file), ability to send email via Net::SMTP, and whether SMTPMAILHOST was set correctly in TWikiPreferences.
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  • Edit a page, and register as a new user - tests page creation, use of register script to create a new user entry in /twiki/data/.htpasswd (the Apache password file), ability to send email via Net::SMTP, and whether SMTPMAILHOST was set correctly in TWikiPreferences (if it is unset it will not use Net::SMTP and will almost inevitably fail silently).

    • If you get a failure to register or send email, check the Apache error log, and that all CPAN modules were installed correctly in Step 6, Installing required Perl modules.
    • Try typing tail -30 /c/apache/logs/error_log to see last 30 errors from Apache
  • Edit a page - check revision increased and set to current date/time
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You may want to investigate TWiki:Codev.WindowsInstallModNTLM, which describes how to add an Apache module so that TWiki:Codev.InternetExplorer users are automatically authenticated based on their Windows domain login - this avoids TWiki:Codev.GettingTheUsernameWrong and TWiki:Codev.ForgettingPasswords, which are usually very common among TWiki users.

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As of the TWiki:Codev.TWikiRelease01Sep2004, there is built in support for several apache based authentication modes. The TWikiInstallationGuide has step-by-step instructions.

Improved performance

See TWiki:Codev.WindowsModPerlInstallCookbook and TWiki:Codev.ModPerl for information on installing TWiki under Apache's mod_perl - this is somewhat more complex and follows a different model, so it's best to get some experience with TWiki, Apache and Perl first.

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  • Depending on the Perl version used (Cygwin or TWiki:Codev.ActivePerl), the TWiki.cfg file uses a mixture of Unix and Cygwin format paths - stick to the format used in the installation step for TWiki.cfg
  • RCS always uses Unix format paths, e.g. /twiki
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Credits

Material in this cookbook is heavily based on the enormous number of contributions in TWiki:Codev.TWikiOnWindowsArchive and related topics - too many people to thank, but have a look at the contributor list to TWiki:Codev.TWikiOnWindowsArchive to get an idea!

People who've tested or reviewed this document and provided valuable feedback include:

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-- TWiki:Main.BernardFarrell
-- TWiki:Main.BerndSchiffer
-- TWiki:Main.ChrisKeith
-- TWiki:Main.CrawfordCurrie
-- TWiki:Main.DavideBaroncelli
-- TWiki:Main.DavidLeBlanc
-- TWiki:Main.JerryWard
-- TWiki:Main.MartinWittmann
-- TWiki:Main.MaryDeMarco
-- TWiki:Main.MattWilkie
-- TWiki:Main.MikeBytnar
-- TWiki:Main.PeterThoeny
-- TWiki:Main.RossC
-- TWiki:Main.TorbenGB
-- TWiki:Main.VictorGoh
-- TWiki:Main.WolframJahn


ALERT! Comments welcome at TWiki:Codev.WindowsInstallCookbookComments
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-- PeterThoeny - 30 Jan 2003
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META FILEATTACHMENT cygwin-icon.gif attr="h" comment="Cygwin icon" date="1092612100" path="C:\Data\Temp\cygwin-icon.gif" size="132" user="PeterThoeny" version="1.1"
View topic | Diffs | r1.6 | > | r1.5 | > | r1.4 | More
Revision r1.4 - 03 Mar 2003 - 01:16 - PeterThoeny
Revision r1.5 - 15 Aug 2004 - 23:19 - PeterThoeny